how to choose Geotextile Factory

Geotextiles are permeable fabrics made from synthetic or natural fibers used in civil engineering applications. They are an important material used in construction projects for separation, reinforcement, filtration, drainage, and containment.

Choosing the right geotextile factory is crucial to get high quality geotextile materials that meet technical specifications. This guide provides a comprehensive overview of geotextile manufacturing, different types of geotextile products, key parameters, applications, installation, and tips on selecting suppliers.

Overview of Geotextile Manufacturing

Geotextiles are made by weaving, knitting, or bonding fibers together to form permeable fabrics. The raw materials used include polypropylene, polyester, polyethylene, PVC, glass fiber, and natural fibers.

The key processes in geotextile production include:

Geotextile Manufacturing Processes

Raw material preparationRaw synthetic or natural fibers are prepared and extruded into the required denier and length.
Web formationFibers are assembled into a continuous web using weaving, knitting, or bonding techniques.
FinishingThe fabric undergoes finishing processes like heat setting, calendaring, coating and impregnation.
Testing and inspectionThe geotextile is tested for technical properties and inspected for defects.
PackagingFinally, the fabric is cut to size and packed for transportation.

The manufacturing method affects characteristics like strength, elongation, permeability, and cost. The quality control system, testing facilities, and reliability of the manufacturer are crucial.


Types of Geotextiles

Geotextiles are classified into different types based on the raw material, manufacturing method, and applications:

Geotextile Types

WovenMade by interlacing warp and weft fibers in a regular patternRoadways, railway tracks, embankments
NonwovenMade by bonding fibers through needle punching, heating, or gluingSlopes, dams, canals
KnittedMade by interlooping one or more yarnsSoil separation, silt fences
CompositeMade by combining above techniquesHigh strength needs
CoatedCoated with bitumen, PVC, latex, etc.Canals, ponds, dams

The product range includes geotextile sheets, geogrids, geonets, geocells, geocomposites, and more. The choice depends on required properties and site conditions.

Key Parameters and Properties

Geotextiles need to meet design requirements like strength, permeability, and filtration ability. Key parameters considered are:

Geotextile Properties

ParameterUnitTypical ValuesFactors AffectingTest Methods
Mass per unit areag/m2100 to 1000Fiber denier and densityISO 9864
Thicknessmm1 to 15Fabric weight and densityISO 9863
Tensile strengthkN/m5 to 1000Fibers, construction methodISO 10319
Elongation%10 to 30Polymer type, crimpISO 10319
CBR puncture resistanceN100 to 10000ReinforcementISO 12236
Permeabilitycm/sec0.1 to 5Pore size, openingsISO 11058
Filtration opening sizeμm70 to 300Fiber denier, constructionISO 12956
UV resistance% strength retained50 to 90Additives, coatingsISO 12224
DurabilityYears5 to 100Polymer, antioxidantsISO 13438

The product should meet the highest specifications as per recognized international test standards.

Applications of Geotextiles

Geotextiles have a wide range of civil engineering applications:

Geotextile Applications

ApplicationFunctionsTypes Used
Road constructionSeparation, filtration, reinforcementNonwoven, woven
Railway bedsFiltration, drainage, separationNonwoven
Retaining wallsReinforcement, drainageWoven, composite
SlopesReinforcement, erosion controlNonwoven, knitted
EmbankmentsFiltration, separation, drainageNonwoven
CanalsSeepage control, bank protectionNonwoven, coated
ReservoirsSeepage control, protectionNonwoven, coated
DamsFiltration, drainage, separationNonwoven
LandfillsSeparation, drainage, linerComposite, coated

Geotextiles perform various functions like filtration, separation, reinforcement, drainage, and erosion control in these applications.


Design Considerations

The design of geotextiles requires consideration of:

  • Site conditions – soil/rock type, water table level, temperatures, chemistry
  • Application – roads, railways, embankments, dams, slopes, retaining walls, etc.
  • Functions – filtration, separation, reinforcement, drainage, containment
  • Product properties – strength, permeability, pore size, durability
  • Specifications and standards – GRI, ASTM, ISO, or local standards
  • Installation requirements – overlaps, underdrainage, placement below/above fill material
  • Economics – product cost, construction time savings, maintenance costs

The product specifications should meet the highest standards for the design life of the application.

Installation of Geotextiles

Correct installation procedures are vital for geotextiles to function effectively:

Geotextile Installation Guide

Site preparationClear vegetation, sharp objects, and level uneven surfaces
UnderlayerPlace geotextile on prepared subgrade or cover uneven ground
PlacementRoll out geotextile smoothly without wrinkles or folds
OverlapsOverlap geotextile joints by 300-600 mm and secure with adhesive, pins, or soil fill
ProtectionAvoid damage by sharp equipment, boots, or falling objects during placement
Fill placementPlace fill material slowly and uniformly over geotextile in thin layers
CompactionUse light compaction minimizing direct contact with geotextile
DrainageProvide adequate drainage layers, pipes, geonets if required
RepairInspect for damages and repair by adding geotextile patch extending 1 m beyond damaged area

Following manufacturer’s guidelines on overlaps, underdrainage, placement below/above fill material is recommended.

Operation and Maintenance

Geotextiles generally do not require maintenance once installed. However, the following should be ensured:

  • Drainage systems and outlets are kept free flowing
  • Erosion control measures remain intact
  • Regular inspections are conducted to check for damages
  • Damaged areas are repaired by adding geotextile patches
  • Accumulated sediments over geotextiles are removed

This helps prevent clogging and continue effective functioning of the geotextile.

Choosing a Geotextile Supplier

The key factors in selecting a geotextile supplier are:

How to Choose Geotextile Manufacturer

ReputationEstablished company with proven track record
CertificationsISO certifications for quality management
Manufacturing capabilityAdvanced production machinery, process controls
Testing capabilityFull-fledged lab for quality checks and documentation
Product rangeDiverse geotextile and geosynthetics range
CustomizationAbility to customize products as per specifications
Technical expertiseExperienced engineers and technical personnel
LogisticsAbility to deliver globally via warehouses, prompt lead times
PricingCost-effectiveness for quality products
DocumentationComplete test reports provided for each batch
ServiceResponsive customer service and technical support

Getting samples tested independently as per design needs is recommended.

Cost Analysis

Typical price ranges for geotextile materials based on polymer type are:

Geotextile Pricing

Polymer TypeUS$ per sq.m
Polypropylene0.5 – 1.5
Polyester1 – 2.5
Polyethylene1.5 – 3
Glass fiber2 – 5
Natural fibers2 – 10

Polypropylene geotextiles offer optimal cost-effectiveness whereas glass fiber and natural fibers are more expensive.

Cost also depends on weight, thickness, manufacturing method, and order quantity. Large volume orders usually cost 20-30% lower than small quantities.

Comparison of Geotextile Materials

Geotextile Material Comparison

ParameterPolypropylenePolyesterPolyethyleneGlass FiberJute
StrengthMediumHighMediumVery highLow
Temperature resistanceMediumHighLowHighLow
UV resistanceMediumHighLowHighLow

Polypropylene geotextiles offer optimal overall performance at low cost. Jute and glass fiber are suited for specialized applications. Polyester provides good strength and durability.


Limitations of Geotextiles

Some limitations of geotextiles:

  • Not suitable for very high strength needs
  • Natural fiber geotextiles have low durability
  • Susceptible to damage during installation if not handled properly
  • Possibility of clogging due to fine soil particles over time
  • Limited resistance to extreme temperatures
  • UV degradtion for polyolefin based geotextiles if not protected
  • Flammability risk for most polymeric geotextiles

Proper product selection and installation methods can mitigate these limitations.


Q: What are the different geotextile manufacturing methods?

A: The main manufacturing methods are weaving, knitting, and nonwoven through bonding. Each method produces geotextiles with different characteristics suited for certain applications.

Q: Should geotextiles be placed above or below fill material?

A: Geotextiles are typically placed directly on the subgrade below the fill material. But for drainage applications, they may be placed between layers or above fill material.

Q: How to prevent geotextile erosion in high flow drainage areas?

A: Use adequate cover fill thickness, limit gradient, or use hard armoring. High strength woven or composite geotextiles can also withstand higher shear forces.

Q: What is the typical width of geotextile rolls?

A: Standard geotextile roll widths range from 5 m to 12 m. Wider rolls result in fewer overlaps and faster installation.

Q: How to repair damages in installed geotextiles?

A: Damaged areas can be repaired by adding a geotextile patch extending at least 1 m beyond the damaged section.

Q: What is the service life of geotextiles?

A: Properly selected geotextiles can last 25 to 50 years. Factors affecting life include polymer type, additives, installation, and site conditions.

Q: Are biodegradable geotextiles available?

A: Yes, geotextiles made from natural fibers like jute and coir are biodegradable options, but have lower strength and durability.

Q: Does geotextile filtration ability decrease over time?

A: Yes, partial clogging by fine soil particles can occur over time. Proper drainage design mitigates this. Maintenance to remove sediment buildup helps.

Q: What are the benefits of using woven vs nonwoven geotextiles?

A: Woven geotextiles have higher strength but lower permeability. Nonwovens have better filtration and drainage capacity.

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